Oxycodone is the powerful primary ingredient in many painkillers prescribed to people suffering from moderate to severe pain. These pills come in various shapes, sizes and colors depending on the dose and brand. Oxycodone is also sometimes prescribed in a liquid form. It is often prescribed as a combination product with other drugs, including acetaminophen aspirin, and ibuprofen, with different brand names depending on the combination.
Generic Name: oxycodone (ox i KOE done)
Brand Names: Oxaydo, OxyContin, Oxyfast, Roxicodone, RoxyBond, Xtampza ER; oxycodone is also present in the following combination drugs: Combunox, Endocet, Endodan, Moxduo, Oxycodan, Percocet, Percodan, Primlev, Roxicet, Xartemis XR, and others
Molecular Formula: C18H21NO4
Why it’s used
Oxycodone is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It can be used short term or long term, depending on your condition.
How it works
Oxycodone belongs to a class of drugs called opioid agonists. A class of drugs is a group of medications that work in a similar way. These drugs are often used to treat similar conditions.
Oxycodone is similar to a group of natural substances in the brain called endorphins. These substances work to decrease the pain messages that your body sends to your brain. By mimicking these substances, oxycodone decreases the amount of pain your brain thinks you’re having.
Oxycodone Effects and Abuse :
Taking more than the prescribed dosage, taking the drug for longer than recommended by a doctor, chewing the pills, and crushing then injecting or snorting oxycodone are all considered abuse of Oxycodone. Many people abuse oxycodone for its euphoric effects. As an opioid, oxycodone’s effects are strikingly similar to heroin.
The effects of oxycodone use include:
– Reduced anxiety
What happens if I miss a dose?
Since oxycodone is used for pain, you are not likely to miss a dose. Skip any missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not use two doses at one time.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. An oxycodone overdose can be fatal, especially in a child or other person using the medicine without a prescription.
Overdose can cause severe muscle weakness, pinpoint pupils, very slow breathing, extreme drowsiness, coma, and/or death.
What should I avoid while using oxycodone?
Do not drink alcohol. Dangerous side effects or death could occur.
Avoid driving or operating machinery until you know how this medicine will affect you. Dizziness or severe drowsiness can cause falls or other accidents.
Avoid medication errors. Always check the brand and strength of oxycod
Drugs you should not use with oxycodone
Do not take these drugs with oxycodone. Doing so can cause dangerous effects in your body. Examples of these drugs include:
Buprenorphine. Using this drug with oxycodone can decrease the effect of oxycodone. This means it won’t work as well. Buprenorphine can also cause withdrawal symptoms.
Anesthesia drugs such as butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine. Using these drugs with oxycodone can decrease the effect of oxycodone. This means it won’t work as well. These drugs can also cause withdrawal symptoms.
Studies by researchers :
To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of oxycodone for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.
Documentary search strategy :
On November 6, 2013, we searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We reviewed the bibliographies of all included studies and various journals, and also searched two clinical trial databases, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Organization’s International Clinical Trial Registration System (ICTRP) World Health Organization (WHO), to identify other published and unpublished data.
Selection criteria :
We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with double-blind evaluation of participant outcomes after two weeks of treatment or more (although the focus in this review was on studies of eight weeks or more) that used a placebo or an active comparator.
Data collection and analysis :
Two review authors independently extracted data on efficacy and adverse events, examined quality of study issues, and assessed risk of bias. We performed an analysis using three levels of evidence. The first third of the evidence was derived from data meeting the best current standards and subject to a minimal risk of bias (endpoint equivalent to a substantial reduction in pain intensity, intention-to-treat analysis without imputation for discharges of study; at least 200 participants in the comparison, lasting eight to 12 weeks, a plan in parallel groups). The second third came from data that did not meet one or more of these criteria and were considered to be at risk of bias, but with a sufficient number in the comparison. The third third came from data on small numbers of participants who were considered very likely to be biased, or who used outcomes with limited clinical utility, or both.
We included three studies with 254 participants; 204 had painful diabetic neuropathy and 50 had postherpetic neuralgia. The size of the studies varied from 45 to 159 participants. Two studies used a cross study design and one a parallel group design; the duration of the studies was four or six weeks. Oxycodone controlled release (oxycodone LC) was used in all three studies, with titrated doses up to a maximum ranging from 60 to 120 mg per day; the average doses obtained were between 37 and 45 mg per day. All studies used a placebo comparator, although in one study an active placebo (benztropine) was used. All of the studies presented one or more sources of significant potential bias.
No study had reported the proportion of participants experiencing at least 50% or very significant pain relief, while one study reported the proportion with at least 30% pain relief, two had reported reported at least moderate pain relief, and one trial reported the number of participants who considered the treatment to be moderately effective. No study has provided evidence belonging to the first or second third for an efficacy endpoint. Third-third evidence indicated a greater reduction in pain intensity and better patient satisfaction with oxycodone than with placebo in all three studies, but this evidence was drawn mainly from the average data observed on one group, with imputations from the last observation reported (last observation carried forward or LOCF) or a per ‐ protocol analysis, in small studies lasting less than eight weeks (very low quality evidence).
Adverse events were more common with oxycodone LC than with placebo. At least one adverse event was felt by 86% of participants taking oxycodone LC and by 63% of those taking a placebo, and the number of subjects to be treated for an adverse effect (NNN) was 4.3. The effects of oxycodone on serious adverse events reported was uncertain compared to placebo (oxycodone: 3.4% versus placebo: 7.0%; RR 0.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 1.23; very low quality evidence); death has been reported with oxycodone LC but was not attributed to treatment. Discontinuations due to adverse events did not differ significantly between groups, occurring in 11% of participants with oxycodone LC and 6.4% with placebo (RR 1.69 (0.83 to 3.43); very low quality evidence). Premature discontinuation due to lack of efficacy were less frequent with oxycodone LC (1.1%) than placebo (11%), with an NST to avoid premature discontinuation of 10 (RR 0.12 (0.03 to 0.45); evidence of very low quality).
We found no relevant studies for chronic neuropathic pain other than painful diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia or fibromyalgia.
Authors’ conclusions :
There is no convincing, unbiased evidence to suggest that oxycodone (oxycodone LC) is useful in the treatment of people with painful diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia. There is no evidence for other types of neuropathic pain, or for fibromyalgia. Adverse events typical of opioids appear to be common.